Notes From Israel

Early-Late Bronze Ages: Ca. 3200 – 1200 / 1150 BCE
Neolithic Period (stone) ca. 10,000 – 4500 BCE
Chalcolithic (copper/stone) ca. 4500 – 3300 BCE
Early Bronze I-III ca. 3300 – 2300 BCE
Early Bronze IV ca. 2300 – 2000 BCE
Middle Bronze ca. 2000 – 1550 / 1500 BCE
Late Bronze ca. 1550 / 1500 – 1200 BCE
Iron I ca. 1200 – 1000 BCE
Iron II ca. 1000 – 586 BCE

586 BCE Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem and Solomon?

The First Cities (early Bronze Age/urbanization)

What is a city: specialization of craft, centralization of power (political, economic, religious), marketplace-derived economy, stratification of society, density, public structures/monuments, taxes to a deity or king, systems of recording/writing.

Cities came to exist around 3200 BCE because people could produce a surplus of food. Irrigation, tools, writing (to keep track of surplus)



covenant, exodus

Canaanites (ca. 2000-1200 BCE): bad guys in the bible. mentioned 160 times. They’re portrayed as enemies of Israelites. Descendants of the bad son, Ham, of Noah who was drunk and saw Noah naked, was therefore cursed.

Homer (Iliad – Trojan War)
Bible (Exodus)

Megiddo: Armageddon


Basics of Archeological Terminology

By collecting data in the form of architecture, observations, and finds (material culture), archeologists attempt to reconstruct the history of a people that either settled/inhabited an area or shaped it.

Bioturbation: the effect of animals tunneling through our site

Tel = mound or heap, artificial (accumulation of stuff), urban space

Stratigraphy – layers

Faynan-Khirbet Hamrat Ifdan

Pot sherds are durable and survive well in the archeological record

wheat, barely, olive, grapes, lentils – Persian