Political Sociologist at UCLA
April 7, 2016
Senator Tom Harkin (D-IA): 50% dropout rate of for-profit colleges
Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965: gainful employment rules (Obama 2009)
Huge spike in lobbying money in 2010. Made statements like: my education, my choice
Working Families for Walmart (2005)
Ed Walker’s book: Grassroots for Hire
Advocacy “explosion” in the 70s-80s. The hippies of the 60s wanted to maintain that energy and effort.
Rising advocacy, declining participation. Thinner meaning. Turned into a very transactional relationships – i.e.: passing along form letters
A client faces a threat and needs support, so they go to a consulting firm who recruits and mobilizes the people. These sponsored activists seek to influence policy makers which goes back to benefit the client.
High use of Grassroots firms in F500: AA, Walmart, PG&E, Pfizer, Lilly, Merck, Verizon, IBM, Comcast, Ford, Motorola, Waste Management (on 5 or more consultant’s client list)
Campaigns and Elections Magazine (C&E)
40% of F500 appear as a client of at least one public affairs consulting firm
AstroTurf is the word for cutting and pasting
These companies target: Political activists, Civic activists, Minority groups, Likely voters, and Partisans. College-educated.
Crowds on Demand: CNN and his name
– are more productive at work ant more creative
– make more money and have superior jobs
– are better leaders and negotiators
– more likely to have fulfilling marriages, less likely to divorce
– have more friends and social support
– have stronger immune systems
– are more helpful and philanthropic
– are more resilient in response to stress and trauma
Happiness has a cognitive and affective component: experience of frequent positive emotions AND a sense that one’s life is good.
Happiness is subjective
Researchers let people judge their happiness for themselves.
People can walk around with a disease and not know it, but they can’t walk around with happiness and not know it.
People who were happy at one point in time…
– have a lower incident of stroke 6 years later
– are less likely to die in a car accident 8 years later
– are less likely to die of all cause up to 28 years later
– are less likely to be receiving work disability pension up to 11 years later
Positive emotional style questionnaire and paid them about $800 to be exposed to cold virus via nasal drops. Quarantined for five days, monitored for one month.
Alice Eisen: induced happy mood (by giving small gift) – had to exclude dieters and diabetics. couldn’t eat the gift Gave remote associates test: three words
Q: What word links them?
those who were in a happy mood are more creative than those in a neutral mood.
Barbara Fredrickson: upward spiral.
Vancouver study: 4-6th grade classrooms, diverse. Experiment: asked kids to do three acts of kindness per week. Asked control group to list whereabouts – three places they went each week. 4 week study. The exp group kids got happier and made more friends.
Is it possible to become happier? Is it possible to sustain happiness?
Three reasons to be pessimistic:
(1) We’re all born with a genetically-determined “set point” for happiness
(2) Happiness is a life-long trait
(3) “Hedonic adaptation” – we adapt to all things positive
– expressing gratitude and appreciation
– practicing acts of kindness
– commit acts of kindness
– count blessings
– live like it’s your last month in a place
– make someone else happier
– write gratitude letters
– visualize best possible future
– affirm your most important values
– savor and replay happy days
What are the moderators and mediators?
PERFORMANCE –> INCREASED WELL-BEING
Mediators: positive events, Pos emotions, Pos thoughts, Pos behaviors, need satisfaction
– across (dosage, social support, variety, trigger)
– between (present vs. future vs. past; other vs. self; social vs. reflective)
– motivation and effort
– efficacy beliefs
– baseline affective state
– social support
Look at it like a medical trial: dosage, possible interactions, are there some people who shouldn’t take this?
Gratitude experiment. Tried 0, 1, and 3 times per week.
– outcome measures: Well being (subjective happiness, SWL, and one more) and Gratitude?
– Dosage: once per week was optimal.
Variety, surprise, novelty. Did a 10-week acts of kindness study intervention, using variety as a moderator. High variety, Control, Low variety.
She finds a gratitude journal – trite. Doesn’t do it. Studies it, but doesn’t do it. “Fit” is critical. Fit with your… personality, goals, strengths, culture, and with the source of your unhappiness.
Best possible self
Replay happy days
acts of kindness
Looking at kindness and gratitude in US and S Korea. In US, both got happier. In SK, kindness got a little happier; gratitude dropped.
When you’re grateful, you feel humbled, indebted, guilty/ashamed for not thanking them enough or doing enough.
Effort is important. Three groups of high, med, low effort. Those who put in a lot, got a lot out. Those who put low effort actually a tad less than baseline.
positive events, connectedness, autonomy
Needs satisfaction: From self-determination theory
will depressed people benefit more or less? more room for improvement but could backfire.
Self-Report is the gold standard for measuring happiness. But trying for behavioral measures with badges monitoring
Three Good Things intervention at Japanese firm for 6 weeks. Done weekly on Fridays. (control just listed things). Changes in movement. Happier group moved more walking in the door in the morning.
Happiness depends upon ourselves – Aristotle
Late Spring 2016
(1) A state of being fully present in work roles (Kahn, 1990)
(2) An antithesis of job burnout (Maslach & Leiter, 1997)
(3) A positive, fulfilling, work-related psychological state: VIGOR (Emotional), DEDICATION (Physical), ABSORBTION (Cognitive) (Schaufeli, Salanova, G, B, 2002)
Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES)
2000: first time Pos Psych came out
Employee engagement, work engagement, job engagement
Momentary Approach of Work Engagement
between people, within people (more common to study now)
he’s focusing on moment to moment changes
Researchers have given less attention to… how fully they are psychologically present during particular moments of role performances (Kahn, 1990)
A Day in the Life of a Happy Worker (looks like a book)
Experience Sampling Method (2007 book)
Two Selves (Kahneman, 1999)
– Remembering self: how engaged were you based on your recollection of your experiences
– Experiencing self: how engaged are you in this moment (momentary assessment)
—- cognitive biases are inherent: remembering self is wrong
(1) Initial survey (demographics, resources – job design, leadership, and personal resources), work engagement
(2) Momentary context, Momentary JD-R, Work engagement (ESM)
(3) In-role performance, extra-role performance, work engagement
Personal Analytic Companion (Paco): don’t need to be online
ESM: 5 times/day for 5 days Mon-Fri.
1,124 responses of 1,538 sent beeps
M=17 per person, 65 working adults
Momentary Context: What are you doing, now? Who are you with? Where are you?
Momentary Work Engagement: I was feeling enthusiastic about my job. I was exerting a lot of energy on my job. I was focusing a great deal of attention on my job. (aggregated three items and created a composite)
77% of overall variance (systematic and error) is attributable to within-person variation
control variables: time of year (did three chunks of time), time of day, demographics (age, gender, tenure): all n.s.
time lag between beep and response (only on android)
Momentary Work Engagement: Simple Average, Peak-End Average
Looked at the simple average, correlated with weekly work engagement. The Peak-End Average was not.
– First study to capture momentary phenomenon of work engagement
– Potential diurnal rhythm of momentary work engagement
Beware of engagement surveys:
– Potential overestimation due to recall bias
Ecological Momentary Assessment
Schwartz and Stone (1998) Strategies for analyzing ecological momentary