Organizational Behavior

The Basics

We study organizational behavior in order to understand, influence, and predict. We take a multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the scientific method through surveys, experiments, observations, and case study. There are three levels of analysis: individual-level, group-level, and organization-wide. The broadest goal is to improve the effectiveness of the organization and the quality of life at work.

Present day, we view organizational behavior a bit differently. Basically, we’re cancelling Theory X (old way) and replacing it with Theory Y (new way). Previously, those in the field of organizational behavior were interested in increasing productivity. Nowadays, we have more of an orientation toward the people who fill roles in the organization. We believe people have an interest in working and we’re trying to find conditions when people will work hard.

An organization is an open system and fits to the Systems Theory model. Basically each component feeds into the next, forming a full circle. (1) Transformation (training, manufacturing) leads to (2) Output (to the environment: products, wages earned) which leads to (3) Input (from the environment: nature, resources, skilled work force) which leads back to transformation.

In all we study, context is incredibly important. It restricts range (national culture), it offsets base rates (ex: nursing), it changes causal direction (friendliness and sales), and it threatens validity (what works in the Western society doesn’t always hold true for the East). Discrete functions of context are the aspects of context that shape behavior, task, social, and physical variables. The term ‘omnibus context’ refers to a journalistic way of framing the story, focusing on who, what, when, why, and how.

The “Big 5 Personality Dimensions” are referenced several times throughout class. These dimensions are: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extroversion. If we have no other information to predict motivation and work behavior, the two things we want to know about a candidate are their level of conscientiousness and emotional stability. Hiring people with these qualities will lead to lower turnover, lower absenteeism, and fewer accidents. Knowing a person’s GMA (general mental ability) is also important, as intelligent people perform better and learn faster. For best results, we should use a combination of predictors. For example, by providing an integrity test in a structured interview we can get a combination of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and agreeableness.

Hiring employees generally starts with a largely unconscious approach involving minimal effort, such as automatically screening out candidates who fail to meet some possibly arbitrary criteria. This can be as simple as looking for keywords in a resume or failing candidates based on their looking at their watches in the waiting room. Next, there is a deliberative, controlled approach in which alternatives are consciously weighed and compared.

Organizations can improve hiring decision by increasing interview structure. Begin by identifying the primary goals for the interview: recruitment, selection, or a combined focus. Then develop a set of questions (based on job analysis) that ask about applicants’ capacity to perform the job. The two question formats that have proven to be the most effective for interviews: past behavior description and situational questions. Develop a set of scoring criteria for evaluating applicants’ answers and when interviewing, ask all applicants the same questions in the same order. Have the interviewers take brief notes on each applicant and to review before rating applicants. Train interviewers to build rapport with applicants. If it’s not possible to structure interviews, then arrange 3-4 interviewers to meet with applicants.

Emotional Intelligence is the ability to perceive and express emotions, as well as to know how to regulate them. There are four levels that are thought to build on one another. Level 1 is self-awareness: understanding your own emotions. Level 2 is self-management: learning how to control emotions. Level 3 is social awareness: understanding others’ reactions to our emotions. Level 4 is relationship management: learning how to manage others’ emotions. However, there is some dispute on this topic. In the course textbook, Lock states that there’s no such thing as Emotional Intelligence. Appraisals come first, then emotions. He states the core role of leader is rational.

Emotional labor is when we control expressing desired emotions during interpersonal interactions. The demands of emotional labor are higher when the job requires frequent and long duration displays of emotions, a variety of emotions, intense emotion, and incongruent emotions.

Job Performance = Ability + Motivation. Three components: (1) task behaviors: core behaviors of a job; (2) citizenship behaviors: contribution to social/psychological work environment; (3) counterproductive behaviors: harmful to the org and/or employees.

Self-efficacy theory basically states: “if you believe, you can achieve.” It is the degree which one sees himself as competent, worthy, and confident. Perceived self-efficacy refers to the belief in abilities that has impact on motivation, action, goal aspirations. Those with low self-efficacy show a decrease in efforts, give up early, feel they have little control, and prefer job training clear cut. Those with high self-efficacy will work hard until they overcome challenges, thrive with job training that allows for innovation, and take initiative.

As of 2012, 7 billion people are online and 2.2 billion are email users. 60-70% of email considered non-essential. Advantages of email are that it is quick and needs little coordination and fewer social status barriers. Disadvantages of email are information overload, it lacks social support, and difficulty in interpreting emotions. Byron’s article (2006) discusses how emails communicate emotions. She states that others may perceive emotional content from the emails you send, whether you intend to communicate emotions or not. The neutrality effect means that employees inaccurately perceive emails intended to convey positive emotion as emotionally neutral. The negativity effect means that employees are especially likely to misinterpret emails as more negative than senders intend.

Operant conditioning can best be remembered by the pneumonic ABC. First is the Antecedent (the condition that leaves to behavior), then Behavior, then Consequences. A pleasant stimulus is positive reinforcement and an unpleasant stimulus is punishment. When a pleasant stimulus is withdrawn, the result is extinction; when an unpleasant stimulus is withdrawn, the result is negative reinforcement.

Reinforcement theory presumes that behavior is a function of its outcomes. Types of reinforcement: (1) continuous: reinforcers follow all instances of positive behavior; (2) ratio: given every nth time of right behavior; (3) variable: ratio providing reinforcement on random pattern (best)

When employees receive a performance appraisal, it is likely to be perceived as accurate when it is in agreement with the ratee’s personal beliefs about his strengths and weaknesses. As a whole, these evaluations do more damage than good. They lead employees to feel resentment, which leads to more deviant behavior. Yearly evaluations aren’t very successful; a culture of constant feedback is better.

In performance appraisals, the rateee will question rating when they don’t understand how they were derived. Criterion deficiency: when a performance appraisal is based upon incomplete information. Criterion contamination: when info other than performance is reflected in the performance appraisal.

The four steps to designing training: analyze training needs, design training, implement training, and evaluate training. (Note: many training programs do not evaluate the success.) Tips for organizations to improve training: employee participation, repetition, and feedback. When training is matched to the job it is more effective than unrelated or unmatched training. Organizations can improve performance with goal setting, two-way communication, asking for self-assessment, coaching, and begin company separation process for poor performers. Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) include actions that go beyond task or technical performance. Counterproductive work behavior (aka deviance) is an act that harms well-being of the organization.

P-O Fit (person-organizational) from the ASA Model (attraction-selection-attrition) is the degree to which a person’s values, personality, goals, etc. match the organization. Person to job fit is the degree to which a person’s KSA (knowledge, skills, and abilities) match job demands. When people fit to organization, they have higher job satisfaction, are more committed, more influential, and remain with the company longer. However, important question: do they perform better? Not necessarily. This only sometimes predicts job performance.

Locus of control is degree to which people feel accountable for their behaviors. Someone with a high internal locus of control believes he controls his own destiny and what happens to him is his own doing. While a person with a high external locus of control feels that things happen to him because of other people, luck, or a powerful being.

Schneider, Goldstein, & Smith (1995) believe the ASA cycle maintains itself since candidates with similar characteristics will be attracted to and selected by the organization. This suggests that organizations tend to lean toward homogeneity, which can be dangerous for long term organizational effectiveness.

Mael & Ashforth (1992) Measuring Organizational Identification (1) This organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me. (2) I would be happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization. (3) I feel as if this organization’s problems are my own. (4) I feel a strong sense of “belonging” to this organization. (5) I fell like “part of the family” at this organization. (6) I feel emotionally attached to this organization.

Ashforth & Kreiner (1999) Dirty Work & Positive Identity. Types of dirty work involve one or more of the following: physical taint (garbage, death, or thought to be performed in noxious or dangerous conditions), social taint (involving regular contact with stigmatized people or where the relationships are servile), moral taint (occupations regarded as sinful or where workers employ deceptive, intrusive, confrontational methods). People tend to seek esteem-enhancing or positive self-definitions, but the stigma of “dirty work” makes it difficult. Those in the field are fully aware of the stigma and the fact that their occupations are perceived as disgusting or degrading. This work is socially constructed, meaning that some aspects are internalized by workers. Workers utilize defense mechanisms and tend to have a strong work group culture. In securing and sustaining a positive social identity, the following steps are helpful: (1) Reframing: transforming meaning attached to stigmatized occupation, uplifting values associated w/ larger purpose. (2) Recalibrating: adjusting implicit standards invoked to assess the magnitude and valence (goodness) of a “dirty work” attribute (3) Retell & relive positive experiences. (4) Refocusing: shift attention from stigmatized features to non-stigmatized ones. Securing and sustaining a positive social identity can be done by social weighting (differentiation from outsiders), making selective social (between-group or sub-group) comparisons, and making sense of things. The stronger the threat, the stronger the culture, and the more perceptions of “us” vs. “them” are reinforced.

Stress and Burnout

Stressors are demands that can be physical or psychological. Stress occurs when people perceive (1) situation is threatening and (2) beyond their control. Prolonged exposure to stress results in physiological, behavioral, and/or psychological strain. Consequences of stress: poor job performance, low job satisfaction, burnout, higher accident rate, strained social relationships, mental or physical health deterioration (sleep problems, substance abuse, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease). Organizational approaches to managing stress: set clear expectations, employee autonomy, fair environment, telecommuting, and sabbaticals. Employee assistance programs can offer emotional counseling.

Role conflict refers to incompatibilities in obligations. Role juggling refers to switch rapidly between demands work and family. Role ambiguity refers to the extent an employee does not know official job duties. If there’s an overload, there is too much work which results in belief of lacking skills. An underload results in boredom and a lack of mental stimulation.

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) plays a general role in disease, exhausting the body’s immune system. (1) Alarm phase of stress: an outside stressor jolts the individual, fight-or-flight. (2) Resistance phase: body releases cortisol, draws on reserves of fats/sugars, a temporary fix. (3) Exhaustion phase: the body depleted its stores of sugars and fats, and the prolonged release of cortisol has caused the stressor to significantly weaken the individual. Disease results from the body’s weakened state, leading to death in the most extreme cases. (This eventual depletion is why we’re more likely to reach for foods rich in fat or sugar, caffeine, or other quick fixes that give us energy when we are stressed.)

Burnout is the syndrome of exhaustion (physical and emotional), depersonalization, and feelings of low personal accomplishment. It is an ongoing negative emotional state resulting from dissatisfaction. There are three dimensions of burnout: exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. Burnout occurs with workload overload and a time pressure, role conflict, role ambiguity, absence of resources (including social support), lack of feedback, little participation in decision making, and lack of autonomy.

Reactive coping refers to harm or loss experienced in the past. Anticipatory coping refers to inevitable threats in the near future. Preventative coping refers to uncertain threats in the distant future. Proactive coping refers to future challenges that are seen as self-promoting.

Affective events theory means the events on the job cause different people to feel different emotions. Emotions inspire actions that can benefit or impede others at work. Affect-driven behavior is behavior that occurs when emotions trigger a person to respond in a particular way. Persona refers to a professional role that involves acting out feelings that may not be real as part of their job.

Motivation

Motivation refers to arousal and direction. Employees are motivated by goal setting/self-efficacy, empowerment, pay, recognition, and justice.

Rousseau (1997) highlights the challenges of motivating employees. An increased culture of layoffs leads to damaged trust and shaky employee commitment. Flatter organizations mean there are fewer supervisors to monitor performance. A changing workforce means a more diverse workforce and younger staff. This diverse group has differing needs.

There are four content theories of motivation, which basically state that people have different needs at different times. The implications of these content theories: match rewards w employee needs, offer employees choice of rewards, and limit use of financial rewards. They are as follows:

(1) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: physiological – safety – belongingness – esteem – self-actualization. If a person is unable to satisfy a higher need, he will be motivated until it is satisfied. Note the exception: people who experience self-actualization desire more rather than less. Many critics believe this model is too rigid.

(2) Alderfer’s theory of ERG (Existence-Relatedness-Growth): believes that if people are unable to satisfy a higher need, they experience frustration and regress to lower level. ERG involves existence (like Maslow’s physical and safety needs), relatedness (like Maslow’s social needs), and growth (like Maslow’s self-actualization but needs are not ranked in order; more than one need may operate at time. This is less rigid than Maslow’s. “Frustration regression” hypothesis states that individuals frustrated in attempts to satisfy one need may regress to another. Implication of ERG Theory – we need to recognize the multiple needs that may be driving individuals at a given point to understand their behavior and properly motivate them.

(3) Herzberg: Motivators and Hygienes. Hygiene factors are dissatisfying factors and are part of the context in which the job is performed, as opposed to the job itself. They involve things that may be taken for granted when they are present (company policy, salary, work condition). Motivators are intrinsic to the job and are the conditions that truly encourage employees to try harder (recognition, achievement, and interesting work).

(4) McClelland’s Needs: Need for Achievement, Power, and Affiliation. Managers can influence expectancy (make sure employees have knowledge, skills, ability), instrumentality (reward performance and inform people in advance about reward), and valence (give employees choice over rewards and find desirable rewards).

There are three process theories of motivation. These theories are considered with the processes through which needs are translated to behaviors.

(1) Expectancy Theory: Effort leads to Performance leads to Outcomes.

  • E-to-P Expectancy (What do you expect out of your efforts?)
  • P-to-O Expectancy (Do well, and you are assigned four more projects, so there’s no incentive to do well.)
  • E-to-P Expectancy: Does the person perceive that if he exerts efforts, he will be able to perform the work successfully? This can be increased with training, selection, resources, clarifying roles, providing coaching, and providing feedback.
  • P-to-O Expectancy: Does the person perceive that outcomes are likely to be obtained if he performs successfully? This can be increased by measuring performance accurately, explaining that rewards are based on past performance
  • Outcomes and Valences: Does he perceive outcomes are likely to be obtained if he performs successfully? This can be increased by using valued rewards and individualized rewards. It can minimize countervalent outcomes.

(2) Equity Theory: Adams. Distributive justice: people are motivated to restore equity. We assess ratios and adjust to make them equitable. This is all psychological and depends on what inputs/outputs you pay attention to. (1) Outcome to input ratio involves input (what employee contributes, for instance skill) and outcomes (what employees receive, for instance pay). (2) Comparison other refers to the people that employees compare themselves to and is not easily identified. (3) Equity evaluation which refers to the comparison. If there’s an equity an employee benefits from (over-reward), he attributes it to his talent. If he detects an under-reward, he can become very emotional. The consequences of inequity are that an employee may change inputs, change outcomes, change perceptions, leave the field, act on the comparison other, or change the comparison other.

(3) Goal Setting Theory: Make goals specific, relevant, and challenging. Increase commitment, participation, and feedback. Make goals challenging, not impossible. Use specific, measurable, aggressive, realistic, and time-bound goals. Motivate employees through goal setting. Difficult, specific goals lead to higher performance than easy, abstract, or no goals. The higher the goal, the higher the performance. Praise, feedback, and involvement influences behavior to the extent it leads to setting specific, difficult goals. This can influence choice, effort, and persistence. The downside to goal setting is that learning decreases, adaptability declines, single-mindedness develops, and ethical problems increase.

Job Characteristics Model leads to employee growth. Core job dimensions include skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Leads to critical psychological states: experienced meaningfulness of the work, experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work, and knowledge of results. Which leads to personal and work outcomes: high internal work motivation, high quality performance, high satisfaction, and low absenteeism/turnover.

Motivate performance through empowerment: (1) Meaning: value of task in light of ideals, values, standards; (2) Competence: self-efficacy; (3) Choice: self causes behavior; (4) Impact (one can make a difference). When organization or individual conditions lead to powerlessness, providing empowerment leads to initiation, motivation, and persistence to accomplish tasks.

Pay for performance can be individual pay (commissions, bonus) or organizational pay (profit-sharing, stock options). Best to define performance in order to ensure competence (required employee KSA’s) and to align pay systems with employee values. Use non-financial motivators when able. Target appropriate organizational level, paying attention to the nature of the task, the ability to measure performance, the organization’s culture, and management’s purpose.

Merit pay plans (the most common) reward individuals for past outcomes by adding to base pay. There are four methods of linking bonuses to goals: assign stretch goals and pay if achieved, multiple goal levels and bonuses increase as higher goals met, bonuses grow incrementally as performance improves, and set goals but making decisions about bonuses after fact so contextual factors taken into account.

Recognition when provided appropriately will increase employee performance. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) involves: reinforcement, social recognition (more than just “good job”), and regulatory mechanism (forethought). SCT analysis of recognition predicts employees will pursue behaviors that receive informal recognition. 1) outcome utility (those with more “power” have more appreciated praise); 2) Informative consent (not just a matter of “good job” but conveying genuine appreciation); 3) Psychological mechanisms (forethought). Social recognition has a greater impact in manufacturing than service industries, as it’s easier to identify. The more complicated the task, the more valuable the recognition.

Make it work by defining performance, having good communication, hiring competent workers, having valued rewards, including non-financial motivators too (recognition), and fostering intrinsic motivation. Motivational synergy means having both internal motivation (from the value of the work itself) and external motivation (compensation). Consider the task, ability to measure, organizational culture, and management’s purpose. Risk include: (1) higher the proportion of variable pay, the more risk; (2) self-efficacy (those confident of ability perceive contingent pay as less risky); (3) factors outside employee’s control; (4) time between performance and reward. Note: employers should gain more benefit than employees. It is unwise when: employees are learning, employer can monitor (being watched improves performance so money is unnecessary), when other motivators are sufficient, or when the workforce is unionized. Positive reinforcers include money, feedback, and recognition.

Organizational justice involves properties that are distributive (degree that outcomes are perceived fair), procedural (degree decision-making procedures are fair), and interactional (degree people are treated with respect, kindness, and dignity). Procedural justice is the perception people have of fairness in making decisions. To promote procedural justice, give people a voice in how decisions are made, provide opportunities for errors to be corrected, apply policies consistently, explain how decisions are made, and treat people with respect. Employees better accept org decisions if they have a say in determining them. Sincerity is a must.

Past research shows that high job demands and low control create high job strain. Autonomy is important in highly demanding jobs. Job social support helps with coping. Demand and fatigue are high when job control is low.

Work Place Attitudes and Turnover

Attitude (beliefs, feelings, behavioral intentions) leads to emotional episodes which leads to behavior. Job satisfaction reduces turnover, absenteeism, and theft. There is a weak association between job satisfaction and job performance because general attitude is a poor predictor of behaviors AND performance affects satisfaction through rewards. Motivate employees through job design, empowerment, goal setting, performance appraisals, and performance incentives.

The empowerment process stage 1: Recognize conditions to disempowerment. Organizational factors include changes, transitions, competitive pressures, poor communication, and centralized organizational resources. Hierarchical leader behavior can be directive (high control), aversive (emphasis on fear), negativism (emphasis on failure), and can have a lack of reason for actions or consequences. Reward system can have arbitrary allocation, low incentive rewards, and no competence-based rewards. Job design can have lack of role clarity, lack of training, unrealistic goals, lack of appropriate authority, low task variety, limited participation in decisions, established work routines, rule structure, low advancement opportunities, or limited contact with senior management. Stage 2: Use managerial empowerment strategies and techniques and promote job enrichment. Stage 3: Enhance self-efficacy, empower leader practices, and add goals and self-development. Stage 4: Interpret as empowering or not – different people have different interpretations. Stage 5: Identify individual behavioral effects of empowerment and self-leadership practices. Stage 6: Group level empowerment.

Theories of job satisfaction: (1) Social Info Processing Model: people’s attitudes toward jobs are influenced by information they receive from others; (2) Dispositional Model: job satisfaction is a relatively stable characteristic that stays with people over various situations; (3) Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction: conceives satisfaction and dis satisfaction as separate variables rather than both falling along a single continuum; (4) Value Theory: focuses on discrepancies between what people want from the job and what they receive, particularly in terms of outcomes they value highly (ie: pay, learning opportunities).

Job satisfaction basically comes down to answering three questions: (1) I am interested in my work (2) I feel energized by the work I do (3) Generally speaking, I am very satisfied w my job.

Key to job satisfaction is mentally challenging work. The most effective way an organization can promote job satisfaction is to enhance mental challenges of the job. This increases life satisfaction, increases job performance, and reduces withdrawal behaviors (absenteeism and turnover).

Factors to job satisfaction and organizational commitment: personality, person-environment fit, job characteristics (skill variety, autonomy, feedback, task significance), work relationships, stress (role ambiguity, role conflict, organizational politics), and work-life balance.

A psychological contract is the unwritten contract stating what an employee will bring and what company will bring. This contract is in breach when people don’t get what they expect and these are issues of organizational justice.

Job satisfaction is negatively correlated with general withdrawal syndrome (absenteeism, turnover, union, lateness, drugs, retirement).

The Job Characteristics Model has been one of most influential attempts to design jobs with increased motivational properties. (Hackmand and Oldham) Core job dimensions lead to critical psychological states lead to personal and work outcomes. There are five core job characteristics that make one’s work challenging and fulfilling: task Identity (degree one sees work from beginning to end), task significance (degree to which work seen as important and significant), skill variety (different tasks), autonomy (degree to which employee controls his own work), and feedback (degree to which work provides feedback on how employee performs). Job satisfaction facets: pay, promotion, opportunities, co-workers, supervision, and the work itself.

Job Diagnostic Survey: extent five core intrinsic job characteristics are present. Nature of work is the most important. Satisfaction with work itself predicts overall job satisfaction. Managers think pay is more important, however, intrinsic job characteristics correlate much higher with job satisfaction. Ways to increase mental challenge: job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment. Criticisms of the job diagnostic survey: measurement, mood, perception, and doesn’t work well for employees with low growth strength need (employees who don’t give a shit).

Turnover can be functional or dysfunctional. It can be avoidable or unavoidable. Focus on who quits and why they quit. The unfolding model specifies multiple paths to quitting. There are four patterns of thought and action to leaving. Path 4: Job dissatisfaction > Thoughts of leaving > Job search > Departure. Path 1: Shock (pre-existing plan, minimal mental deliberation, job satisfaction irrelevant) Path 3: Shock > Violation to values > Consider org. attachment > Leave without search for alternatives (minimum deliberation and job satisfaction is irrelevant). Path 2: Shock > Violation to values > Consider organizational attachment > Consider better alternatives (job satisfaction may be relevant).

Turnover should be more carefully managed rather than minimized. Leaving may be unavoidable (turnover is greater than 100% in some industries). Also, sometimes quitting by some individuals is functional. What gets measured gets employee attention. Monitor with job satisfaction surveys and MBWA (management by wandering around).

Meyer & Allen (1984) Organizational commitment is the degree to which people are involved with the organization and want to remain there. Affective commitment refers to the emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. Normative commitment refers to a person’s feelings of obligation to stay with an organization due to pressures from others. Continuance commitment is the belief that staying with the organization serves your personal interests.

O’Reilly & Chapman (1986) Three factor approach to commitment: (1) Internalization: “If the values of this organization were different, I would not be as attached to this organization.” (2) Compliance: “In order for me to get rewarded around here, it is necessary to express the right attitude.” (3) Identification: “I feel a sense of “ownership” for this organization rather than being just an employee.”

Mowday et al (1979) Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ): (1) “I really care about the fate of this organization” (2) “For me, this is the best of all organizations for which to work.” (3) “I am proud to tell others I am a part of this organization.”

Build organizational commitment by maintaining fairness and satisfaction, providing job security, supporting organizational comprehension involving employees in decisions, and building trust.

Payne & Huffman (2005) Research on mentoring shows that protégés have higher affective and continuance commitment. Protégés with a supervisor as a mentor have higher levels of affective commitment. Mentoring decreases turnover. This leads us to questions: What are the managerial implications? Should organizations have formal mentoring programs? To what extent should mentoring be required for managers?

Job satisfaction correlates with affective organizational commitment. Lower scores on job attitude measures are associated with thoughts of leaving and this correlates well with actual leaving. Until people finally quit, less satisfied employees are absent slightly more often, somewhat less helpful to co-workers, and perform their jobs more poorly. Therefore, employers must monitor: 1) Job attitudes (must examine trends over time) 2) Global withdrawal cognitions.

Job embeddedness factors contribute to employee’s staying in job: links (ties to co-workers), fits (extent job is compatible w pers goals), and sacrifice (loss of values). Job performance can be determined by job analysis. This includes observable work behaviors (cooperation), measurable employee actions, supervisory judgments, tangible outputs, and revenues generated. 1) Decide if selective retention is important. 2) If yes, decide if an employee’s quitting is functional or dysfunctional and avoidable or unavoidable. 3) Anticipate employee leaving by monitoring job attitudes, global withdrawal cognitions, shocks, paths, and job embeddedness. 4) If turnover is avoidable, determine if path be quick (paths 1,2) or slow (paths 3,4 and gather this info by surveys or MBWA.

Organizational Behavior Page 2